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WHERE Statements

The WHERE part is separated because it can be combined with Select, Update and Delete query builder instances. WHERE can be initialized and because of that, you can build complex WHERE statements. Here you'll find a lot of examples and various combinations on how to use it.

Simple statements

The simplest where statement is when you use it on Select. Same is for Update.

$select = new Select('user');
$select->where('id', 5);

$update = new Update('user');
$update->set('first_name', 'John');
$update->where('id', 5);

The two examples above are pretty straight forward. where() method is pretty powerful because it accepts various range of parameter combinations. It's made to feel straight forward when building query. So here are some combinations you can use:

  1. where(column, value) - if you pass two parameters, then first parameter is the column name which has to have the given value - by default, = will be used as operator
  2. where(column, '!=', value) - if you need to put the operator, simply put it between first and third parameter. You can use other operators like LIKE and ILIKE - anything that your database accepts
  3. where(instance of Where) - you can pass instance of Where on the first place to make nested WHERE statement
  4. where(Db::expr("anything = 'you want'")) - you can pass instance of Expr in which case nothing will be parsed or escaped. In this case, you have to handle everything by yourself. This is not recommended so use it only if there's no other way.

If you call where() method twice, it'll be linked with AND. To link it with OR, simply use method that starts with or, like orWhere(). or methods accepts the same parameters as their opposite version.

$select = new Select('user');
$select->where('id', 5)->orWhere('id', 7);

Other WHERE methods usually have their negation version, like not in or not null. Here they are.


$select->whereBetween('id', 5, 8);
$select->orWhereBetween('id', 5, 8);
$select->whereNotBetween('id', 5, 8);
$select->orWhereNotBetween('id', 5, 8);


$select->whereIn('id', [5, 8, 9]);
$select->orWhereIn('id', [5, 8, 9]);
$select->whereNotIn('id', [5, 8, 9]);
$select->orWhereNotIn('id', [5, 8, 9]);


This is alias to where(column, 'LIKE', value). To use PostgreSQL's ILIKE, you'll have to pass that operator manually using where() method.

$select->whereLike('first_name', 'John');
$select->orWhereLike('first_name', '%John%');
$select->whereNotLike('first_name', 'John');
$select->orWhereNotLike('first_name', '%John%');

NULL values

This is useful when selecting records with NULL-value columns. null methods accepts just column name as parameter.


Nested Where Statements

To nest two or more Where statements, simply pass instance of Where to another where() method. Let's create SELECT query that selects users where first name is John and age is 25 or where last name is Smith and age is 30:

$select = new Select('user');

$where1 = Where::init()->where('first_name', 'John')->where('age', 25);
$where2 = Where::init()->where('last_name', 'Smith')->where('age', 30);


The query will look like this:

    ((first_name = 'John') AND (age = 25))
    OR ((last_name = 'Smith') AND (age = 30))